An issue brief by FP Analytics, with support from Daughters for Earth, Vital Voices, and Project Dandelion

Today, more than two billion people experience water scarcity in some form. Without intervention, that figure could increase to 3.2 billion people within two decades. Water insecurity is among the greatest challenges facing the global community, one that disproportionately impacts the health, education, and economic opportunities of women and girls, who are responsible for 80 percent of water collection in households without piped water. As of 2022, one-quarter of women globally lacked access to safely managed drinking water, and two-fifths of women lacked access to safely managed sanitation. United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 aims to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all,” yet none of its targets is on track globally to be met by 2030. These challenges are being exacerbated by climate change, driving both water scarcity and an increase in water-based and polluting hazards such as floods. Climate change is also challenging established methods of water management and conservation, necessitating the development and deployment of innovative and sustainable new approaches to water stewardship. To course-correct on the Sustainable Development Agenda and end water scarcity, while mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate change, stakeholders at all levels of society and across all sectors need to come together in a concerted effort. Centering women’s expertise in water stewardship is critical to meeting the 2030 SDG deadline and fulfilling the commitments of the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change.

A 2019 World Bank study of water utility companies in 28 countries found that only 20 percent of new hires were female.

This issue brief explores the women-led interventions to transform water security, stewardship, and management underway around the world to better understand the link between water security and gender equality and identify fruitful pathways to achieving both goals. Our analysis demonstrates the costs associated with undervaluing women’s expertise in water management, and the measurable impacts women’s water stewardship can have on peace, prosperity, profitability, and sustainability. Growing this evidence base is critical, because women remain under-represented at all levels of water governance and management, despite playing a crucial role globally in managing household water procurement, especially in under-resourced settings, and environmental stewardship. Much more can be done to leverage women’s expertise to meet the goal of access to safely managed water and sanitation for all.  

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has found that only 15 percent of national-level environmental sector ministries among UN Member States are women.

Proportion of Household Members Responsible For Water Collection

Water collection exerts a significant socioeconomic burden on women and girls, with far reaching community impacts.

Data note: surveys conducted in various years from 2012 to 2022.

DATA SOURCE: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

Economic Cost of Water Collection, Women and Girls, 2022

The economic cost of water collection is equivalent to up to 10 percent of minimum monthly earnings lost per water carrier.


In Malawi, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Central African Republic, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Kyrgyzstan, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Lao People’s Democratic Republic, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Malawi, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Central African Republic, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Kyrgyzstan, relative to minimum monthly earnings


In Lao People’s Democratic Republic, relative to minimum monthly earnings

Data note: Quantifying the time spent on water collection in terms of the monthly minimum wage provides perspective on the economic burden of water collection on women and girls. Their time could have been allocated to more productive activities or for human capital development, such as learning activities.


Ensuring water security can not only improve women’s health, economic status, and well-being throughout their lives, but also yield multifold societal dividends

As of 2017, one-quarter of the world’s population was required to collect water from off-site sources. The burden of this task falls disproportionately on women and girls and produces whole-of-society impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, women and girls are estimated to spend up to 40 billion hours a year collecting water, equivalent to a year’s worth of labor by the entire workforce of France. Similarly, in India, it is estimated that productivity losses from women’s water collection are equivalent to INR 10 billion ($160 billion, approximately 4.7 percent of the country’s GDP). An estimated 70 to 80 percent of jobs in low- and lower-income countries and 50 percent of jobs in high-income countries are water-dependent, making a reliable, clean water supply central to the functioning of the global economy. Yet, alongside the worsening impacts of climate change, such as drought, desertification, and soil erosion, water scarcity is predicted to cost certain regions of the world up to 6 percent of GDP by 2050. Global economic growth is therefore measurably dependent on a multistakeholder effort to increase water security, and women need to be at the forefront of this endeavor.

Within the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and gender equality goals are closely intertwined, and increased access to clean water can have a significant impact on women’s economic security over the course of their lives (Figure 1). Water security forms the basis of human development, enabling people to lead healthy lives and pursue the educational and employment opportunities for a prosperous, fulfilled life. Improved and accessible water and sanitation services contribute to girls’ education, reaping economic dividends for their communities in the long term, by reducing time spent out of school collecting water, enabling girls to manage their menstrual cycles safely and with dignity, and supporting the attendance of girls with disabilities. Additionally, poor sanitation is a threat to maternal, fetal, and infant health. In Flint, Michigan, for example, over the 18-month period in which lead entered the city’s water supply, the fetal death rate rose by 58 percent, and fertility rates dropped by 12 percent. Globally, more than 800,000 women lose their lives annually due to insufficient access to safe WASH facilities, and one in four hospitals still lacks basic water services. The multifold impacts of water scarcity therefore expose women and girls to violence and physical disability, and lead them to undertake maladaptive behaviors that undermine gender equality and equity. Improved hygiene practices and access to sanitation facilities for all can also have a significant downstream effect on quality of life and economic output, as healthier populations are less susceptible to absenteeism or curtailed careers within the labor force.

In 2021, 28 percent of schools globally lacked improved sanitation services, and 42 percent did not have handwashing facilities with water and soap. In least developed countries, 51 percent and 68 percent of schools lacked such facilities, respectively.

Women represent a key workforce demographic within industry and agriculture, where responsible water stewardship will be critical to future profits, and which can have various impacts on the quality of life and health of local communities. For example, irrigation can dramatically increase the yield of agricultural land, and is an effective form of climate adaptation, while easily integrating into multiple-use systems that serve the needs of rural women and their families by expanding access to safe drinking water. However, irrigated lands collectively represent only 20 percent of global agricultural land, and just 6 percent in Africa. Effective water management in agriculture is closely connected to gender equality and women’s rights, as many smallholder farmers and agricultural workers—some sources estimate up to 62 percent of farmers in low- and middle-income countries—are female. Expanding irrigation and scaling up other sustainable agricultural practices can contribute to economic growth and drastically change how female farmers spend their days, reducing the time spent collecting water and tending to crops. The linked challenges of water scarcity and climate change threaten the future of human development and prosperity. Achieving SDG 6 on clean water and sanitation would contribute markedly to the achievement of not only SDG 5 on gender equality but also SDGs 1, 3, 4, and 8, to end poverty, achieve good health and well-being, and improve access to quality education and employment for all. Yet, WASH projects remain under-financed, and those that are implemented often lack gender-sensitive design or monitoring to enhance their effectiveness. Despite the clear benefits of improved water and sanitation services, aid for WASH programming is decreasing. Official development assistance (ODA) for water and sanitation fell by 5.6 percent between 2017 and 2020, while in 2022, 75 percent of countries reported insufficient funding for their national WASH plans and priorities. As a result, women and girls are being shortchanged, even as they strive to steward water supply as responsibly and sustainably as possible. However, stakeholders who are committed to enhancing global water security can support and scale up the ongoing women-led and women-facilitated work underway within and across a variety of communities.

Mapping Climate Risks, Water Insecurity, and Gender Inequality

Regions experiencing gender inequality, water insecurity, and climate vulnerabilities need intersecting interventions.

Yemen, Afghanistan, Niger are among countries facing high gender disparities amid high water stress and climate change risks.

Middle East showed the highest levels of water stress in 2023.

Africa faced the highest levels of gender inequality as of 2022.

DATA SOURCES: United Nations Development Programme; Aqueduct 4.0, World Resources Institute; INFORM, European Commission

Women are tackling water insecurity but require public, private, and multilateral support to expand the impact of their work

Women and girls represent a driving force improving water security and conservation, and they are reaping the social, economic, and environmental benefits of these interventions. It is now widely accepted that water management is more effective when local communities participate in designing, deploying, and maintaining water systems, as they can bring their water needs and their previous experiences operating water systems to bear. Women and girls, as the majority of water collectors and at least half of agricultural workers, and undertaking the vast majority of domestic labor, are vital representatives of local communities, and projects can benefit accordingly from their participation. When women shape water policies and programs alongside men, communities make better use of water services and sustain them for longer. Indeed, involving women in the design and implementation of water projects can increase their effectiveness by up to seven times, while water resources are shared more equitably when women are involved in governance. For example, a study of 121 water governance projects in 49 low- and middle-income countries found that meaningful participation by women enhanced effectiveness and sustainability and that, conversely, a failure to include women was correlated with project failure. There are ample opportunities to expand women-led water stewardship across sectors and build on existing work taking place in community-led initiatives, in public policy and water diplomacy, in the private sector, and with the support of multilateral institutions.

Reforming land rights to expand the impact of women’s water stewardship

In many regions, women’s community groups leverage traditional and indigenous knowledge to ensure that local water sources are not over-taxed or polluted, with evidence showing that women’s involvement in community water projects results in more sustainable management. Yet, women face significant legal and cultural obstacles to participating in water management committees, particularly barriers to land ownership and inheritance. Discriminatory land ownership laws and customs—still in place in 76 countries—can obstruct women from engaging in community water management, as holding land titles is often a prerequisite for membership of such groups. Lack of land rights also often prevents women from accessing subsidies and allocation rights for irrigation of agricultural land, impeding their ability to practice responsible water stewardship in agricultural production, and leading to lower crop yields. In Vietnam, for example, female-headed households have reported 20 percent lower rice yields than male-headed households due to lack of land ownership and limited access to water supplies. Expanding land and property rights for women can therefore facilitate water security, higher crop yields, increased profits, and reduced hunger.

Enabling women’s meaningful participation in community-level water management committees—and expanding access to irrigation and other sustainable farming techniques—will therefore require overturning discriminatory land rights laws and increasing access to loans and financing. There is growing recognition of, and response to, this need, particularly among multilateral institutions. The UN Convention to Combat Desertification, for example, acknowledges the need to expand women’s land rights to achieve both environmental and gender-equity goals. Its 2018 Gender Action Plan calls for Parties to the Convention to significantly increase women’s land rights globally by 2030, linking this aim back to SDG 5. Similarly, the World Bank’s Gender Strategy for 2024-2030 calls for legal and regulatory reform to secure women’s land, housing, and property rights. At the grassroots level, NGOs such as GROOTS Kenya are working to overcome discriminatory laws and traditions by supporting women from Maasai tribal settlements to access community land rights and thus join land management committees. Organizations are also working to facilitate women’s access to credit and financial independence via water management projects. For example, the Innovation Lab for Small Scale Irrigation worked with SMEs in Ghana to develop a financing program for women farmers in Ghana to access solar-powered irrigation pumps, which increased sale of solar pumps to women by 11 percent in just one year.

Addressing gender inequality in water-intensive industries through explicit target-setting

As the primary water collectors, women and girls are most likely to interact both with water infrastructure and with others collecting water. As such, they have experiential knowledge and insights into the pressures, challenges, and needs of both the water source itself—natural or manmade—and the communities reliant on it, including regarding sanitation education and budget-setting. Women, therefore, have knowledge and preferences that can be deployed when they are employed in public and private water utility companies, including as technicians and plumbers. Participants in projects that trained women to repair and maintain water pumps in urban and rural communities in Ghana, for example, reported feeling more empowered to shape water management decisions and to proactively engage the wider community to use the pumps.

Yet, as of 2022, women represented less than 17 percent of paid water sector jobs globally, and in 2019 a World Bank study of sixty-four water utility companies in 28 countries found that, on average, only 23 percent of engineers and managers in these companies were female. This unequal representation not only impacts the sustainability and success of water projects within communities, but is also a lost opportunity for the private sector. Increasing the representation of women in male-dominated industries, including water management, can increase profitability and transparency, and decrease negative environmental impacts. The under-representation of women, and under-valuing of women’s knowledge of water management, is in part driven by the legal and policy environments of the countries in which water companies operate. The 2023 Women, Business, and the Law Index found that 20 countries still have restrictions on women’s ability to work in the water sector, including as plumbers.

The private sector has a critical role to play in facilitating and amplifying the role of women in water services, including by hiring, retaining, and promoting women in water management roles, as do jointly or publicly owned water utilities. Companies can set clear targets to recruit women into technician, managerial, and executive roles, and work closely with recruiters, schools, and universities to identify talent and facilitate women’s access to relevant training and qualifications to work within the water sector. Employee resource groups can provide safe spaces for women and other under-represented groups to discuss workplace challenges and identify solutions and strategies the company can implement. Ensuring that women are able to work safely and with adequate protection is also key to their retention. Additionally, companies operating in sectors that are heavily reliant on water, such as the garment industry—which is responsible for around 20 percent of freshwater pollution globally, and has a 60 percent female workforce—can work downstream with local producers of inputs to reduce pollution and improve sustainable water usage.

Facilitating peace and stability through transboundary water diplomacy

Water diplomacy is a key arena in which women are taking the lead, both on the world stage as ministers and negotiators of transboundary water-sharing agreements, and at the grassroots level through community-led cooperation. As water becomes scarcer, and the effects of climate change are felt through drought, floods, and other water-related events, water is increasingly a driver of conflict. The Pacific Institute’s Water Conflict Chronology project has identified over 1,300 local, national, and regional conflicts relating to water since 2000 alone. Amidst the war in Ukraine, for example, the destruction of the Kakhova Dam in 2023 has been described as an “ecological disaster,” devastating agricultural land, homes, and critical infrastructure, and polluting previously clean water sources with pesticides, chemicals, and dead animals. Addressing the root causes of water scarcity—through climate change mitigation and adaptation, and through improved water management—is critical to both conflict prevention and resolution.

Given that women’s participation in both water management and peace processes has been found to improve the long-term success of both undertakings, women have a significant role to play in in transboundary water governance, which is critical to ensuring water security and mitigating water-related conflicts.  There are 310 transboundary river basins, which span more than 150 countries and serve at least 40 percent of the global population, but two-thirds of these basins do not have an official cooperative management framework in place, making them both a potential trigger for conflict and vulnerable to its impacts. To facilitate peaceful and sustainable use of these shared resources, women in many basin-adjacent communities have leveraged longstanding intercommunal relationships or established new ones. For example, fisherwomen on the border between Guinea and Liberia devised a timetable enabling women on each side of the border to fish on different days, avoiding conflict in a historically tense region, and contributing to biodiversity and sustainable resource use. The success of localized dialogues signals the deep knowledge that women have both of their proximate water sources and of the needs of their communities, and how to deploy that knowledge in pursuit of lasting peace and prosperity. Moving forward, policymakers and practitioners have a critical opportunity to better integrate climate adaptation and water conservation into the UN’s Women, Peace and Security Agenda.

Moreover, much more can be done to scale up women’s representation in ministerial and diplomatic positions relating to water and environmental stewardship globally. In 2020, women occupied more than 40 percent of Minister of Environment or related positions—such as acting as national focal points for climate-related UN Conventions—in OECD countries, yet globally only 15 percent of such jobs were held by women. This is a missed opportunity, as such roles can amplify women’s impactful water security and stewardship efforts into national, regional, and global effects, and can highlight the importance of gender-responsive climate action plans. To address the gender gap in water diplomacy, non-governmental organizations are establishing professional networks and offering support and training for women seeking to scale-up their transboundary cooperation. The Women in Water Diplomacy Network, for instance, works to expand women’s role in water diplomacy by bringing together women working on transboundary water issues at differing scales and levels to share experiences and build cross-border relationships. Such organizations can facilitate mutually supportive relationships among women that contribute to long-term water-sharing and regional stability across borders, while closing a noted gender gap, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Supporting women’s water stewardship and leadership at the multilateral level

The global costs of achieving SDG 6 have been estimated at over $1 trillion per year, or 1.21 percent of global GDP, yet in 2021, ODA for water and sanitation services totaled under $9 billion. Multilateral institutions have an important role to play in closing this funding gap, and specifically in facilitating women’s leadership in water stewardship and conservation. Given the transboundary nature of much of the world’s water sources, multilateral institutions both regionally and globally can act as conveners or watchdogs for water diplomacy. In addition, critical roles for multilaterals include brokering and supporting public-private partnerships, supporting policy and tax environments that encourage and de-risk investment in water management infrastructure, and mobilizing sustainable finance for long-term water security. Evidence that women’s involvement in water projects leads to greater success and sustainability can be leveraged to mobilize funding and support for gender-sensitive projects going forward, enabling greater investment in both WASH and gender priorities. Multilateral institutions’ gender mainstreaming strategies can also help to direct funding and technical assistance toward women-led and women-facilitated water projects. The Armenian Women for Health and a Healthy Environment (AWHHE) project, for example, was granted a budget of $160,000 by UNDEF to promote equitable access to safe drinking water and effective irrigation by working directly with women to build their capacity to implement and maintain irrigation and sustainable farming methods. Over 80 percent of the project’s beneficiaries were women. The next AWHHE project seeks to build on the relationships developed to promote democracy and climate-smart agricultural adaptations, indicating how WASH projects can facilitate broader community intervention and lead to a range of benefits.

Multilateral institutions also have the capacity and oversight to undertake research identifying innovative and creative solutions to water scarcity that can then be implemented by local female actors, such as wastewater and graywater recycling processes. However, consistent, impactful work on water security requires a strategic commitment to the achievement of WASH and gender goals from multilateral agencies and their funding and implementing partners. Effective, gender-sensitive water security projects will require explicit targets, to measure progress and identify persistent gaps in project impact and coverage. Work to close gaps in gender-disaggregated data, particularly in low-income and resource-scarce contexts, will be central to this goal.


Indigenous women work across borders to strengthen water security and protect biodiversity of Lake Titicaca

The Lake Titicaca basin, which sits on the border of Bolivia and Peru, is a unique haven for biodiversity in the region, home to 530 native aquatic species, and supports a local population of approximately two million people, supplying freshwater for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Yet, today, water levels in the lake and its tributaries are receding significantly, driven by drought and climate change, and native species are threatened by pollution from nearby hospitals and mining operations, endangering the local human and animal populations. Since the 1990s, the Titicaca basin has lost 90 percent of its native fish to overfishing and pollution, while water levels in 2021 dropped 0.85 meters below historical levels. Meanwhile, heavy metals, including arsenic, have made the water unsafe to drink.

Recognizing the growing threat to Lake Titicaca’s biome, Bolivian and Peruvian women came together in 2016 to form Mujeres Unidas en Defensa del Agua. Today, this network is led by more than 50 indigenous women from local basin communities, who undertake various activities to reduce pollution, improve biodiversity, and increase awareness of the lake’s environmental, economic, and spiritual roles. The network organizes regular clean-ups on the shores of the lake, runs educational sessions in schools on biodiversity and water stewardship, and monitors water quality to drive progress towards a clean lake. The members also collaborate with and lobby local and national government representatives to increase funding and support for their activities and overall goal. Mujeres Unidas has developed with cross-sectoral support, particularly from NGOs. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) works with the network through its BRIDGE program focused on transboundary river basins, including by training women to use drones and water quality equipment to monitor the status of the lake.


Cross-sectoral collaboration builds water security in India’s female-dominated garment industry

The apparel industry is growing steadily, representing around 2 percent of global GDP in 2023, but its adverse environmental impacts are far reaching. A single cotton t-shirt requires 2,700 liters of water to make, and 5.9 trillion liters of water are used globally annually for fabric-dying processes. Indeed, around 20 percent of global industrial water pollution comes from fabric dying. The industry is also heavily female-dominated—nearly 60 percent of garment workers globally are women. India, where  60 percent of the 45 million garment workers were women as of 2020, contributes four percent of global trade in textiles and apparel, and the national industry is expected to be worth $190 billion by 2026.

Recognizing the significant impact of the garment industry on Indian water security and the well-being of Indian women and girls, Gap Inc. and USAID funded the Women + Water Alliance between 2017 and 2023 as a cross-sectoral partnership to improve access to water and sanitation services, empower women in the garment industry, and expand sustainable farming practices. The Alliance’s implementing partners included CARE, WaterAid, and, bringing together private-sector, international development, and non-governmental actors for maximum impact. Over the project’s lifespan, 2.4 million people gained access to improved water and sanitation services, exceeding its initial target. The project also successfully mobilized $27.4 million in financing for WASH projects, supported nearly 2,500 villages to develop water access plans, and trained over 13,000 women and youth to test water quality. Additionally, over 4,100 farmers were trained in sustainable cotton farming practices—around 40 percent of India’s farmers are female. In light of the success of this project, in 2023, Gap Inc., GSK, and Cargill launched the Women + Water Collaborative, which seeks to improve water access around India’s Krishna and Godavari basins, as part of a global project to improve water security in 100 river basins by 2030.


Private water utilities address historic workforce gender imbalances

SUEZ is a private-sector water utility headquartered in France and operating in 40 countries worldwide. In 2022, SUEZ and its subsidiaries provided water to over 68 million people globally. In recognition of a historic gender imbalance within its workforce and leadership, since 2019 the company has implemented a targeted gender strategy, which seeks to hire more women into its ranks, and to facilitate their retention and promotion. The SUEZ gender strategy is underpinned by the collection and monitoring of sex-disaggregated data, enabling leaders and hiring managers to understand the challenge, and facilitating the setting of explicit gender and diversity targets. The initial focus of the strategy was increasing the number of women on the SUEZ Executive Committee and expanding the representation of women in the overall workforce, in executive groups, and in management.

To meet these goals, the SUEZ strategy addresses barriers to female employment, both internally and externally. For example, to improve recruitment of women, SUEZ has adjusted its job descriptions, worked with recruiters to encourage female applicants, and ensured that at least one woman is shortlisted among the final candidates for each open position. To improve retention and promotion of SUEZ’s female workforce, opportunities such as career mentoring and the creation of a diversity network have been introduced, and the company is addressing its gender wage gap, setting a three-year deadline to eliminate pay gaps. Having met its initial goal of 23 percent female managers by 2023, SUEZ is working toward a new target of 40 percent female managers by 2027, as part of its expanded 2023–2027 Sustainable Development roadmap.

Looking ahead: Overcoming barriers to women’s water stewardship and security

Climate change, biodiversity loss, and human-driven over-taxation of water sources are driving water scarcity globally, exacerbating conflict, gender-based violence, and gender inequality, and contributing to economic stagnation and productivity loss. Without critical interventions from all sectors, these challenges will only become more acute. The achievement of SDGs 5 and 6, and progress toward all other SDGs—as well as the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change—will require leaders across all sectors to work closely with women at every level of society to identify and implement effective water security, management, and governance interventions. The value of women’s water stewardship knowledge, particularly that of indigenous women, can no longer be ignored. Stakeholders in global health and economic prosperity, and those working to reduce the negative impacts of climate change, can amplify and elevate the work already underway by women in water-scarce communities, and close persistent gaps in women’s involvement and leadership in water management and water diplomacy.

Cross-sectoral actions to support women’s impactful ongoing work in water stewardship include:

  • Investing in the sustainable expansion of existing women-led water security and water stewardship projects, and working with women launching new projects, including by building project capacity and offering technical assistance.
  • Designing and implementing gender-sensitive and gender-responsive water management and climate adaptation and mitigation plans, at the regional, national, and local governance levels.
  • Providing funding and technical assistance for capacity-building and skills training, for example, by training local water user associations to install and maintain plumbing systems, offering grants and scholarships for academic and professional training, or delivering training in mediation.
  • Integrating and elevating women in decision-making and management roles, for example by setting and working toward clear gender diversity targets for management and C-suite positions, appointing women to high-level ministerial and diplomatic positions, and rolling back laws that prohibit women’s land ownership.

Addressing data gaps will be key to monitoring and accelerating the progress of work to secure access to clean water for all, particularly working to collect high-quality gender disaggregated data. Currently, only around one-quarter of the data needed to monitor progress toward gender-related SDGs is available. While SDG 6 has no official gender-specific global indicators, actors including national governments, multilateral institutions, and the private sector have been working to improve gender-sensitive data collection, notably through the UN Water Integrated Monitoring Initiative for SDG 6 (IMI-SDG6). This initiative is developing tools to enhance the gender sensitivity of SDG 6, currently being tested in pilot countries before a global rollout. Work such as this can enable stakeholders at the national and international levels to identify gaps and shortcomings but can often suffer from a lack of local-level data. Finding creative ways to collect local data for both urban and rural contexts will require working closely with CSOs and women’s community groups to better understand their needs and capacities, and to provide requisite education and training to facilitate data collection. As the primary collectors and users of water within the home, women and girls will be key to the fulfillment of SDG 6, and the provision of clean, accessible, reliable water for all—if they are supported to access the tools and knowledge that are necessary for success.

By Isabel Schmidt (Senior Policy Analyst and Research Manager), Angeli Juani (Senior Policy and Quantitative Analyst), and Dr. Mayesha Alam (Vice President of Reserach). Illustration by Sawsan Chalabi for FP Analytics.



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